Diocletian

   Emperor (q.v.) from 284-305 whose reign is associated with certain important administrative and other reforms. Provincial governors were stripped of their military authority and provinces (q.v.) became smaller by increasing their number from 57 to almost a hundred. Provinces were grouped into 12 dioceses (q.v.), each governed by a vicar (q.v.), who, like the provincial governors he supervised, were responsible for justice and taxation, but had no military authority. At the highest level of administration was the tetrarchy (q.v.). The net result was to decentralize authority in such a way as to enhance imperial authority. For example, now provincial governors were responsible only for civil administration, while military authority was separated into the hands of a doux (q.v.). Diocletian's financial reforms included an attempt to reform the coinage, an Edict on Prices (q.v.), and a new method to assess the annona (q.v.) called the capitatio-jugatio (q.v.). This necessitated an increase in the number of tax officials in the provinces. Other reforms included the new collections of imperial edicts, the Codex Gregorianus and Codex Hermogenianus (qq.v.). Some of Diocletian's work failed. The tetrarchy collapsed soon after Diocletian's retirement in 305. The Edict on Prices proved ineffectual, and the Great Persecution (q.v.) of 303-311 failed. However, his administrative reforms, augmented by those of Constantine I (q.v.), lasted until the seventh century.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Diocletian — [dī΄ə klē′shən] (L. name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) A.D. 245 313; Rom. emperor (284 305) …   English World dictionary

  • Diocletian — /duy euh klee sheuhn/, n. (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) A.D. 245 316, Illyrian soldier: emperor of Rome 284 305. * * * Latin Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus orig. Diocles born AD 245, Salonae?, Dalmatia died 316, Salonae Roman… …   Universalium

  • Diocletian — Roman Emperor AD 284 305.     Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus was commander of the Imperial Guard and became emperor when Numerian (AD 283 4) was assassinated. He was the last reigning Roman emperor to visit Egypt: he was present at the fall …   Ancient Egypt

  • Diocletian — Büste Diokletians im Archäologischen Museum Istanbul Diokletian (* zwischen 236 und 245 in Dalmatien; † 3. Dezember 313 oder 316 in Spalatum), vollständiger Name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, war von 284 bis 305 römischer Kaiser.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Diocletian — noun Roman Emperor who when faced with military problems decided in 286 to divide the Roman Empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west; he initiated the last persecution of the Christians in 303 (245 313) • Syn: ↑Gaius Aurelius… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Diocletian — biographical name 245 316 Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Roman emperor (284 305) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Diocletian — noun /ˌdaɪ.ɵˈkliːʃən/lang=en Roman cognomen, particularly borne by the Roman emperor (245 313) …   Wiktionary

  • DIOCLETIAN —    Roman emperor from 284 to 308, born at Salona, in Dalmatia, of obscure parentage; having entered the Roman army, served with distinction, rose rapidly to the highest rank, and was at Chalcedon, after the death of Numerianus, invested by the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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